Dear Reader, last week’s challenge was a bit devilish, but clearly not hard enough, as several of you figured it out; you are impressive! This week’s location should not be too hard to guess…
This location was one that I almost overlooked in my travels, as I had not put it on the itinerary. As my wife and I were driving to our next stop on our travels, and in truth we were looking for some spot to eat some lunch, I caught this beauty out of the corner of my eye, as it was a bit obscured by foliage.
We figured out where we could find access to the location and had a fun time exploring it; lunch was served late, and delicious!
When people think of visiting the Netherlands, they always think about Amsterdam and, possibly, The Hague, but relatively few think about visiting Rotterdam. Each of these cities has their set of attractions with Amsterdam’s museums and canals, and the beach and parks of The Hague, but for my money you can’t beat the variety of what Rotterdam offers! And, as the mystery slide for this week is set in Rotterdam…
The best way to visit Rotterdam is by public transportation; if you’re coming from outside the city, you’ll likely arrive at the central train station, or ‘Centraal Station’. This completely modern transportation hub combines train, street car, bus and metro (subway) in one convenient package. When using public transportation in the Netherlands you’ll want to get get an OV-Chipkaart, which is used for all modes of transportation; as a tourist you can buy an anonymous OV-Chipkaart, which comes preloaded and can be loaded at many check-points using your credit/debit card. Just don’t forget to swipe your card when you get off you disembark!
A unique feature about Rotterdam’s architecture is the presence of skyscrapers in the center of the city. Every other city center in the Netherlands consists of older architecture. This is due to the fact that during the early days of World War II, the center of the city was flattened by German bombs during the so-called Rotterdam Blitz. The notable surviving building from this onslaught is the St. Lawrence Church (St. Laurenskerk), which was damaged, but was restored and still stands proud surrounded by modern architecture.
The center of Rotterdam is well-known for its shopping district that extends along the Coolsingel and the streets surrounding it. As the Dutch love walking in their cities, the center has been set up to minimize the need for crossing the street. An example of this is the Beurstraverse, which is better known as ‘de Koopgoot’ or, literally, the shopping gutter; as you can see, one just walks down the incline and continues shopping at the stores below ground level, as you cross the busy Coolsingel to get to more shops.
As Rotterdam is a major port-city (‘Gateway to Europe’), water is never very far away. As the port has expanded over the years and ships have become larger, some of the old harbors are no longer used for shipping, such as the Delftsevaart above. They have either been filled in to make room for building or preserved as picturesque living areas right in the center of the city.
Hope you enjoyed this little overview of the city of my birth!
After last week’s view of Castle Eilean Donan, I’m taking you on the next logical step from our journey three years ago: the Isle of Skye. I’ll feature some of my landscapes in this week’s post and then include some more detailed images in next week’s post.
At 1,656 square kilometres (639 sq mi), Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Lewis and Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills (Gaelic:An Cuiltheann). Malcolm Slesser suggested that its shape “sticks out of the west coast of northern Scotland like a lobster’s claw ready to snap at the fish bone of Harris and Lewis” and W. H. Murray, commenting on its irregular coastline, stated that “Skye is sixty miles [100 km] long, but what might be its breadth is beyond the ingenuity of man to state”. Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication. His geological observations included a note that:
There are marcasites black and white, resembling silver ore, near the village Sartle: there are likewise in the same place several stones, which in bigness, shape, &c., resemble nutmegs, and many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours. The Applesglen near Loch-Fallart has agate growing in it of different sizes and colours; some are green on the outside, some are of a pale sky colour, and they all strike fire as well as flint: I have one of them by me, which for shape and bigness is proper for a sword handle. Stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains.
— Martin Martin, A Description of The Western Islands of Scotland.
The Black Cuillin, which are mainly composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramatic and challenging mountain terrain in Scotland. The ascent of Sgùrr a’ Ghreadaidh is one of the longest rock climbs in Britain and the Inaccessible Pinnacle is the only peak in Scotland that requires technical climbing skills to reach the summit. These hills make demands of the hill walker that exceed any others found in Scotland and a full traverse of the Cuillin ridge may take 15–20 hours. The Red Hills (Gaelic: Am Binnean Dearg) to the south are also known as the Red Cuillin. They are mainly composed of granite that has weathered into more rounded hills with many long scree slopes on their flanks. The highest point of these hills is Glamaig, one of only two Corbetts on Skye.
The northern peninsula of Trotternish is underlain by basalt, which provides relatively rich soils and a variety of unusual rock features. The Kilt Rock is named after the tartan-like patterns in the 105 metres (344 ft) cliffs. The Quiraing is a spectacular series of rock pinnacles on the eastern side of the main spine of the peninsula and further south is the rock pillar of the Old Man of Storr.
I hope you enjoy these vistas from this spectacular island!
This week’s theme for the DailyPost Weekly Photo Challenge is Future, urging us to focus on the potential of things to come. I am planning to post several images throughout the week, with today’s image showing that part of the Future is here already.
The Falkirk Wheel is a marvel of modern engineering that truly opens our eyes to what is promises are held by the Future of science and engineering.
The Falkirk Wheel is a rotating boat lift connecting the Forth and Clyde Canal with the Union Canal, which have an elevation difference of 35 meters (appr. 115 feet). Prior to the construction of this marvel, ships were required to go through a system of 11 locks, which could take as much as a day to traverse.
The wheel raises boats by 24 meters, after which they still need to go through 2 locks for the remaining 11 meters. The lock operates on Archimedes’ principle, which states that the upward buoyant force on an object (i.e. boat) equals the mass of the water that is displaced. This means that when a boat enters the moving part of the lock, its mass plus the mass of the water is equal to the mass of the when the boat was not in the lock. In a nutshell both sides of the arm are always balanced.
The Falkirk Wheel is the only lock of its kind in the world; it opened in 2002.
This image was shot with my Canon EOS 5D Mk III with an EF 24-105 f/4L lens. The camera’s built-in HDR processing was used to get the look and feel in these images.
This week, I am taking you back to Scotland, where my wife and I vacationed in 2013; we know that we will go back for a more extensive visit, as we both love it!
As we were on our way from Fort William to Isle of Skye, we knew that our trip would take us past the lovely castle of Eilean Donan, so we made sure that we had time for a visit. The drive up from Fort William taking the A82 to the A87 was extremely picturesque, particularly the final stretch along Loch Duich.
I have included a shortened version of the history of the castle from Wikipedia here for your edutainment:
History of the Castle
It is possible that an early Christian monastic cell was founded on the island in the 6th or 7th century, dedicated to Donnán of Eigg, an Irish saint who was martyred on Eigg in April 617. No remains of any Christian buildings survive, though fragments of vitrified stone, subjected to very high temperatures, have been discovered indicating the presence of an Iron Age or early medieval fortification.
In the earlier thirteenth century, during the reign of Alexander II (ruled 1214–1249), a large curtain-wall castle (wall of enceinte) was constructed that enclosed much of the island. At this time the area was at the boundary of the Norse-Celtic Lordship of the Isles and the Earldom of Ross: Eilean Donan provided a strong defensive position against Norse expeditions. A founding legend relates that the son of a chief of the Mathesons acquired the power of communicating with the birds. As a result, and after many adventures overseas, he gained wealth, power, and the respect of Alexander II, who asked him to build the castle to defend his realm.
At a later date, the island became a stronghold of the Mackenzies of Kintail, originally vassals of Uilleam, Earl of Ross. At this early stage, the castle is said to have been garrisoned by Macraes and Maclennans, both clans that were later closely associated with the Mackenzies. Traditional Mackenzie clan histories relate that Earl William sought advantage from the Treaty of Perth of 1266, by which King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the Hebrides to Scotland, and demanded that his kinsman Kenneth Mackenzie return the castle to allow his expansion into the islands; Mackenzie refused, and Earl William led an assault against Eilean Donan that the Mackenzies and their allies repulsed.
The Mackenzie clan histories also claim (with little, if any, supporting contemporary evidence), that Robert the Bruce sheltered at Eilean Donan during the winter of 1306 to 1307; the castle escaped any other involvement in the Wars of Scottish Independence. In 1331 Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, sent an officer to Eilean Donan to warn the occupants of his forthcoming visit. In preparation 50 wrongdoers were rounded up and executed, their heads being displayed on the castle walls to Moray’s approval. By the middle of the 14th century the Mackenzies are said to have been on the losing side in the ongoing feuding with the Earls of Ross; Earl Uilleam IIIgranted Kintail to Raghnall Mac Ruaidhrí in 1342. With the assistance of Leod Macgilleandrais, the Earl allegedly apprehended Kenneth Mackenzie, 3rd of Kintail, and had him executed in 1346 at Inverness. Through this period Eilean Donan is said to have been held by Duncan Macaulay for the Mackenzies, against the Earl and his allies. Kenneth’s young son Murdo Mackenzie supposedly evaded the Earl’s attempts to eliminate him, and on the return of David II from exile Murdo Mackenzie was allegedly confirmed in the lands of Kintail and Eilean Donan by a charter of 1362 (of which, however, no trace survives to the present day). At some point in the earlier 14th century it is thought that the Clan Macrae began to settle in Kintail as a body, having migrated from the Beauly Firth, and there gained the trust of the Mackenzie lairds through possible kinship and an advantageous marriage. The Macraes began to act as Mackenzie’s bodyguards, acquiring the soubriquet “Mackenzie’s shirt of mail”.
Jacobite rising and destruction of the castle
In 1689, King James VII of the House of Stuart was declared to have to forfeit the throne, and the crown was offered to William of Orange, in the so-called “Glorious Revolution”. The revolution also established Presbyterianism in Scotland, although the Highlands generally remained Roman Catholic and loyal to the Stuarts. A series of Jacobite Risings followed, leading to an increased military presence in Scotland as government forces attempted to penetrate and subdue the Highlands. In 1714 while surveying fortifications for the government, the military engineer Lewis Petit made the only surviving drawing of Eilean Donan. The sketch-elevation and carefully drawn plan show a dilapidated castle, largely roofless but for a small building by the entrance.
A major Jacobite uprising took place in 1715. Led by the Earl of Mar, it was an attempt to restore the exiled James Stuart, the “Old Pretender”, to the throne. William Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Seaforth, joined the Jacobite army, leading out men of the Clan Mackenzie and Clan Macrae. The Macraes mustered at Eilean Donan, and are said to have danced on the roof of the castle before setting out to the Battle of Sheriffmuir, where 58 Macraes were among the Jacobite dead. The battle was indecisive and the rising collapsed soon after.
Following the failure of the rising of 1715, the Jacobites found new support from Spain, now opposing both Britain and France in the War of the Quadruple Alliance. The Duke of Ormonde led the main invasion fleet from Spain, while an advance party of 300 Spanish soldiers under George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal, arrived in Loch Duich in April 1719, and occupied Eilean Donan Castle. The expected uprising of Highlanders did not occur, and the main Spanish invasion force never arrived. At the beginning of May, the Royal Navy sent ships to the area. Early in the morning on Sunday 10 May, HMS Worcester, HMS Flamborough, and HMS Enterprise anchored off Eilean Donan and sent a boat ashore under a flag of truce to negotiate. When the Spanish soldiers in the castle fired at the boat, it was recalled and all three ships opened fire on the castle for an hour or more. The next day the bombardment continued while a landing party was prepared. In the evening under the cover of an intense cannonade, a detachment went ashore in the ships’ boats and captured the castle against little resistance. According to Worcester‘s log, in the castle were “an Irishman, a captain, a Spanish lieutenant, a serjeant, one Scotch rebel and 39 Spanish soldiers, 343 barrels of powder and 52 barrels of musquet shot.” The naval force spent the next two days and 27 barrels of gunpowder demolishing the castle. Flamborough then took the Spanish prisoners to Edinburgh. The remaining Spanish troops were defeated on 10 June at the Battle of Glen Shiel.
Restoration and reuse
Between 1919 and 1932, the castle was rebuilt by Lt. Col. John MacRae-Gilstrap. The restoration included the construction of an arched bridge to give easier access to the island. Macrae-Gilstrap also established a war memorial dedicated to the men of the MacRae clan who died in the First World War. The memorial is adorned with lines from John McCrae’s poem “In Flanders Fields”, and is flanked by grey field guns from the war. Eilean Donan was opened to the public in 1955, and has since become a popular attraction: over 314,000 people visited in 2009, making it the third-most-visited castle in Scotland. In 1983 ownership of the castle was transferred to the Conchra Charitable Trust, established by the Macrae family to maintain and restore the castle, and a purpose-built visitor centre was opened on the landward side of the bridge in 1998.
The castle is regularly described as one of the most photographed monuments in Scotland, and is a recognised Scottish icon, frequently appearing on packaging and advertising for shortbread, whisky and other products. Eilean Donan has made several appearances in films, beginning with Bonnie Prince Charlie in 1948 and The Master of Ballantrae in 1953. The castle featured prominently in Highlander (1986) as the home of Clan MacLeod and served as the Scottish headquarters of MI6 in The World Is Not Enough in 1999.
As it happened, I came across some of my old slides last night after I had a short guitar practice (not been feeling that great this week, which cut into my practice time); these were from the late 1980’s and there are some interesting ones, as some came from a business trip.
I am confident that many among you can identify the country, where I captured this image, but how many among you can identify the city?
As landscape photography is one of my main areas of interest, I am am truly excited about this week’s Daily Post Weekly Photo Challenge: Landscape. Each day this week, I will share some of my favorite landscape shots.
After leaving Ólafsfjörður, I followed the road along the northern coast of Iceland, which is an amazingly scenic ride with many places to stop and soak in the beauty of the landscape, such as at this location.
As you can imagine, what caught my eye was the line of the road leading toward the cloud cover hanging over the fjord in the distance. The light was not ideal, but at some point, I will improve the quality of this image.
In the mean time, I hope you like it.
This image was shot with a Canon EOS 5D Mk III with an EF 24-105 f/4L lens (circular polarizer attached). This image was shot at 1/100 second at f/16 at 400 ISO.